3) Risk factors: –
Acanthamoeba Keratitis: –
We said that Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare disease because Acanthamoeba is a weak enemy. However, anyone can be infected but the people whose immune system is week will be at higher risk for Acanthamoeba infection if they wear contact lenses.
For people who wear contact lenses, certain practices can increase the risk of getting Acanthamoeba infection:
- Storage and handling lenses improperly.
- Using of tap water or homemade solutions to clean lenses instead of the specified disinfectant.
- Swimming, using a hot tub or showering while wearing lenses.
- Coming into contact with contaminated water.
- Having a history of trauma to the cornea.
However, contact lens wearers who practice proper lens care and non-contact lens wearers can still develop the infection because this enemy lives in everywhere. we just talk about the factors that raise the possibility of infection.
There have been no reports of Acanthamoeba keratitis being spread from one person to another.
Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis (GAE) and Disseminated infection:-
GAE and disseminated infection are very rare forms of Acanthamoeba but it can be a dangerous enemy when the defense system of your body is comprised (i.e. comprised immune system). This means that any condition that affects the immune system can increase the risk for GAE and disseminated infection. These conditions such as:
- Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) caused by HIV virus.
- Organ/Tissue transplant because after the transplant the patient should receive some drugs that inhibit the immune system (i.e. make the immune system blind)
- Steroids or excessive use of antibiotics.
- Diabetes Mellitus
- The chemotherapy weakens the immune system.
- Disorders in which white blood cells in the lymphatic tissue are over-produced or abnormal.
- Disorders in which white blood cells or blood clotting mechanisms do not function properly or are abnormal,
- Liver cirrhosis.
- is a chronic autoimmune disease in which the body’s immune system becomes hyperactive and attacks normal, healthy tissue.