2) Causes: –
So, How do this enemy succeed in these attacks:-
Let’s discuss each type of the attack strategies.
1) Acanthamoeba keratitis infection:
In this attack strategy or this infection, Acanthamoeba attacks the transparent outer covering of the eye called the cornea.
The question is: How does it reach to the cornea? Or what are the common ways by which it reaches to the cornea?
Of course, you can say that it can reach the cornea from the air because it lives in the air. That is right. But, there is something that makes the possibility to reach the cornea high which is wearing the contact lenses and this is the most common way by which Acanthamoeba reaches the cornea. But, this does not mean that the people who don’t use contact lenses are safe because, as we say before, Acanthamoeba is very common in nature and can found in air, dust, soil, water … etc.
Attacking through the contact lenses can occur due to some poor practices that can increase the chance to be attacked (i.e. increases the risk of getting Acanthamoeba keratitis) such as:-
- Storage and handling lenses improperly.
- Using of tap water or homemade solutions to clean lenses instead of the specified disinfectant.
- Swimming, using a hot tub or showering while wearing lenses.
- Coming into contact with contaminated water.
- Having a history of trauma to the cornea.
2) Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis and Disseminated infection
How does Acanthamoeba reach the brain or any area inside the body to attack? Simply, Acanthamoeba enters the body through a cut, wound in the skin or through the nostrils and then, travel through the bloodstream to other parts of the body, especially the lungs, brain and spinal cord. But, we said before that this enemy is very weak which means that it can attack the weak body whose immune system is compromised and this is why these forms of Acanthamoeba infections are rare forms.